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Kufa was the successor of Al-Madina (in today's Saudi Arabia) as the capital of the Islamic world. This achievement is not to be understated if we take into account that Kufa was only founded in 618 AD , by Sa'ad Bin Abi Waqqas.
Kufa was for a considerable period of time a great center of learning and trade before being overshadowed by neighbouring city of Najaf.
It was in this city, at the place where now masjid-e-Kufa stands, that the
flood of Prophet Nooh(a.s.) had started from.